Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Sodium hydride
      Sodium fluoride
      Sodium hydrogen fluoride
      Sodium chloride
      Sodium bromide
      Sodium iodide
      Sodium hypochlorite
      Sodium chlorate
      Sodium hypobromite
      Sodium bromate
      Sodium hypoiodite
      Sodium iodate
      Sodium periodates
      Sodium monoxide
      Sodium peroxide
      Sodium hydroxide
      Sodium perhydroxide
      Sodium monosulphide
      Sodium polysulphides
      Sodium hydrogen sulphide
      Sodium sulphite
      Sodium hydrogen sulphite
      Sodium potassium sulphite
      Sodium pyrosulphite
      Sodium sulphate
      Sodium hydrogen sulphate
      Sodium monopersulphate
      Sodium pyrosulphate
      Sodium persulphate
      Sodium thiosulphate
      Sodium dithionate
      Sodium trithionate
      Sodium tetrathionate
      Sodium pentathionate
      Sodium hyposulphite
      Sodium selenides
      Sodium selenite
      Sodium selenate
      Sodium sulphodiselenide
      Sodium tellurides
      Sodium tellurate
      Sodium nitride
      Sodium hydrazoate
      Sodium hydrazide
      Sodium hyponitrite
      Sodium nitrite
      Disodium nitrite
      Sodium nitrate
      Sodium phosphides
      Sodium dihydrophosphide
      Sodium hypophosphite
      Sodium phosphites
      Sodium dihydrogen phosphite
      Sodium hypophosphates
      Sodium orthophosphates
      Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate
      Sodium pyrophosphate
      Disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate
      Sodium metaphosphate
      Sodium polyphosphate
      Sodium arsenites
      Sodium arsenates
      Sodium antimonate
      Sodium carbide
      Sodium carbonate
      Sodium hydrogen carbonate
      Sodium percarbonate
      Sodium cyanide
      Sodium thiocyanate
      Sodium silicates
      Sodium borates
    PDB 131d-1bli
    PDB 1bph-1d10
    PDB 1d11-1ej2
    PDB 1eja-1gb5
    PDB 1gb6-1goh
    PDB 1gq2-1ikp
    PDB 1ikq-1jz1
    PDB 1jz2-1kvs
    PDB 1kvt-1me8
    PDB 1mg2-1nsz
    PDB 1nta-1oyt
    PDB 1p0s-1qjs
    PDB 1qnj-1s5d
    PDB 1s5e-1tjp
    PDB 1tk6-1uxt
    PDB 1uxu-1vzq
    PDB 1w15-1xc6
    PDB 1xcu-1yf1
    PDB 1ygg-1zko
    PDB 1zkp-2afh
    PDB 2agv-2bhc
    PDB 2bhp-2cc6
    PDB 2cc7-2dec
    PDB 2deg-2ein
    PDB 2eit-2fjb
    PDB 2fld-2gg8
    PDB 2gg9-2h9j
    PDB 2h9k-2ien
    PDB 2ieo-2jih
    PDB 2jin-2omd
    PDB 2omg-2p77
    PDB 2p78-2q68
    PDB 2q69-2qz7
    PDB 2qzi-2v35
    PDB 2v3h-2vwo
    PDB 2vx4-2wig
    PDB 2wij-2x1z
    PDB 2x20-2xmk
    PDB 2xmm-2zfq
    PDB 2zfr-3a6s
    PDB 3a6t-3b1e
    PDB 3b2n-3bos
    PDB 3bov-3ccr
    PDB 3ccs-3d7r
    PDB 3d97-3e3y
    PDB 3e40-3erp
    PDB 3euw-3fgw
    PDB 3fh4-3g3r
    PDB 3g3s-3gxw
    PDB 3gyz-3hwt
    PDB 3hww-3ijp
    PDB 3imm-3k0g
    PDB 3k13-3l7x
    PDB 3l88-3max
    PDB 3mbb-3mr1
    PDB 3mty-3nu3
    PDB 3nu4-3ot1
    PDB 3ow2-3qwc
    PDB 3qx5-3tfr
    PDB 3tfs-3v6o
    PDB 3v72-4ag2
    PDB 4aga-4eae
    PDB 4ecn-4g8t
    PDB 4gdt-8icw
    PDB 8icx-9icy

Sodium nitrate, NaNO3

Immense deposits of sodium nitrate, NaNO3, are situated in Chile, hence the name "Chile saltpetre." The local name is "Caliche." The origin of the deposits is a matter of dispute. The crude product is contaminated with clay and sand, and is purified by crystallization from water. An important impurity is sodium iodate, a valuable source of iodine. The chlorides can be decomposed by heating with nitric acid, hydrogen chloride being expelled.

Sodium nitrate is a white substance, and crystallizes in cube-like, doubly refracting rhombohedra isomorphous with calcspar. For its melting-point Haigh gives 306.8° C., Lorenz 310° C., Person 310.5° C., Bruni and Meneghini 312° C., Braun 314° C., Carnelley 316° and 319° C., and Carveth 318° C. For the freezing-point Schaffgotsch gives 313° C. The density is given by Krickmeyer as 2.267 at 20° C., by Haigh as 2.266 at 20° C., by Retgers as 2.265 at 15° C., by Brill and Evans as 2.175 at 13° C., and by Andreae as 2.261. Between 320° and 515° C. it is given, according to Lorenz, by the expression D = 2.12 – 0.0007t. For the specific heat between 27° and 59° C. Schuller found 0.2650, Regnault for the previously fused salt 0.2782, and Person for the liquid between 320° and 430° C. 0.41. The latent heat of fusion for 1 gram-molecule at 310.5° C. is given by Person as 5.5 Cal. The heat of formation from the elements is stated by Thomsen to be 111.25 Cal., and by Berthelot to be 110.7 Cal.; that from nitric acid and sodium hydroxide is given by Thomsen as 13.68 Cal., and by Berthelot as 13.5 Cal. For the heat of solution Thomsen gives. -5.0 Cal., and Berthelot between 10° and 15° C. - 4.7 Cal. The heptahydrate melts at -15.7° C.

The table summarizes the results obtained by the Earl of Berkeley10 in his work on the solubility of sodium nitrate:

Temperature, °C0102030405060708090100119
Grams of NaNO3 in 100 grams of Water7380.58896.2104.9114124.6136148161175.5208.8

Gerlach gives the boiling-point of the saturated solution in contact with the solid as 120° C., and its strength as 222 grams per 100 grams of water; the Earl of Berkeley and Applebey's value for the boiling-point is 120.20° C. at 760 mm.

In the fused state sodium nitrate is dissociated to the extent of 61.7 per cent., and its mean molecular refraction between 320° and 440° C. is 11.54.

The molecular electric conductivity of sodium nitrate between 321.5° and 487.3° C. is given by the formula

μt = 41.56+0.205(t - 300).

Sodium nitrate is a very deliquescent substance, and is therefore unsuited for the manufacture of explosives. It is employed in agriculture as a fertilizer, and by double decomposition with potassium chloride yields potassium nitrate. Large quantities are reduced to sodium nitrite, an important reagent in the manufacture of coal-tar dyestuffs.

References are appended to investigations of the molecular weight and surface tension of the fused salt; of the optical properties and electric conductivity; of such properties of aqueous solutions as boiling-point, density, viscosity, diffusion, specific heat, vapour-pressure, molecular weight of the dissolved salt, molecular depression of the freezing-point and elevation of the boiling-point, electric conductivity, and refractivity; of the solubility in organic solvents; and of the formation of double salts with potassium nitrate and sodium carbonate.

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